Occidental Sources Concerning Nubia

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These "Occidental Sources Concerning Nubia" are to accompany and support the compilation of Giovanni Vantini's Oriental Sources Concerning Nubia already available in this source book.

These sources are gathered from authors across Europe writing in languages including, but not exclusive to: Latin, Old French, Middle French, Flemish, Catalan and Italian.

For the period preceding the texts here, the collection in Fontes Historiae Nubiorum. Textual Sources for the History of the Middle Nile Region Between the Eighth Century BC and the Sixth Century AD, eds. T. Eide, T. Hägg, R. H. Pierce, and L. Török, 4 vols. (Bergen, 1994-2000) is invaluable.

Comments and recommendations of sources to the administrators of the website are most welcome.

Translations are open to revision and debate.

By A. Simmons


Heliodorus (originally c. 4th century but reappeared throughout the Medieval period)

Paulus Orosius (c. 415-20)

Procopius of Caesarea (c. 551)

Antonius Martyr (c. 570)

The Venerable Bede (c. 703)

Ansileub (c. 750)

Alfred the Great (c. late 9th century)

The Marvels of the East (c. 1000)

Ekkehard von Aura (c. 1101)

Guibert de Nogent (c. 1107-8)

Albert d'Aix (c. 1120)

Fulcher of Chartres (c. 1128)

Matthew of Edessa (c. 1137)

Hugh of St. Victor (d. 1142)

Hermann the Second (1143)

John of Würzburg (c. 1170)

Richard of Poitiers (1172)

Pisan trade document (1173)

William of Tyre (c. 1170-84)

Burchard of Strasbourg (c. 1175)

Chronicle of Ernoul (c. late 12th century)

Theodoric (c. late 12th century)

Arnold of Lübeck (c. 1209)

Gervais de Tilbury (c. 1209-18)

Robert de Clari (c. 1216)

Oliver von Paderborn (1217-9)

Jacques de Vitry (c. 1220)

Ebstorf Mappaemundi (c. 1234)

Roger of Wendover (c. 1235)

Lucas de Tuy (1236)

Alberic of Trois-Fontaines (c. 1241)

Matthew Paris (c. 1250)

Albertus Magnus (c. 1260s)

Roger Bacon (c. 1267)

Burchard of Mount Sion (c. late 13th century)

Ristoro d'Arezzo (1282)

Hereford Mappaemundi (c. 1283-1313)

Marco Polo (c. 1300)

Ottokar aus der Gaal (c. early 14th century))

Hayton of Corycus (1307)

Guillaume Adam (c. 1310-4)

Marino Sanudo Torsello (c. 1300-21)

Friar Jordanus (c. 1330)

Directorium ad Passagium Faciendum (1332)

John of Verona (1335)

Angelino Dulcert (1339)

Niccolo da Poggibonsi (c. 1345-50)

Anonymous Account of the Holy Land (c. 1350)

Ludolph von Sudheim (1350)

Mappaemundi of Portulano Mediceo Laurenziano (1351)

El libro del conosçimiento de todos los reinos (c. 1350-85)

Vivaldi Brothers (before 1360)

John of Hildesheim (c. 1370)

Sir John Mandeville (d. 1371)

Catalan Atlas (1375)

Philippe de Mézières (c. 1365-85 and 1393)

Ogier d'Anglure (1395-6)

Jean de Bethencourt (1402-6)

Portulan attributed to Jaffuda Cresques (c. 1416)

Orlando Innamorato (1482)

Friar Felix Fabri (c. 1483)

Joos van Ghistele (1481-5)

Orlando Furioso (1532)