Occidental Sources Concerning Nubia

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These "Occidental Sources Concerning Nubia" are to accompany and support the compilation of Giovanni Vantini's Oriental Sources Concerning Nubia already available in this source book.

These sources are gathered from authors across Europe writing in languages including, but not exclusive to: Latin, Old French, Middle French, Flemish, Catalan and Italian.

Comments and recommendations of sources to the administrators of the website are most welcome.

Translations are open to revision and debate.

By A. Simmons

Heliodorus (originally c. 4th century but reappeared throughout the Medieval period)

Paulus Orosius (c. 415-20)

Procopius of Caesarea (c. 551)

Antonius Martyr (c. 570)

The Venerable Bede (c. 703)

Ansileub (c. 750)

Alfred the Great (c. late 9th century)

The Marvels of the East (c. 1000)

Chanson de Roland (c. 1090)

Guibert de Nogent (c. 1107-8)

Albert d'Aix (c. 1120)

Fulcher of Chartres (c. 1128)

Matthew of Edessa (c. 1137)

Hugh of St. Victor (d. 1142)

Hermann the Second (1143)

Anna Comnena (c. 1148)

John of Würzburg (c. 1170)

Richard of Poitiers (1172)

Pisan trade document (1173)

William of Tyre (c. 1170-84)

La Chanson de Jérusalem (12th century)

Chanson d'Antioche (c. 1180)

La Chrétienté Corbaran (chanson) (c. late 12th century)

Les Chétifs (chanson) (c. late 12th century)

Chronicle of Ernoul (c. late 12th century)

Theodoric (c. late 12th century)

Arnold of Lübeck (c. 1209)

Gervais de Tilbury (c. 1209-18)

Robert de Clari (c. 1216)

Oliver von Paderborn (1217-9)

Jacques de Vitry (c. 1220)

Ebstorf Mappaemundi (c. 1234)

Roger of Wendover (c. 1235)

Alberic of Trois-Fontaines (c. 1241)

Matthew Paris (c. 1250)

Albertus Magnus (c. 1260s)

Les Enfances de Godefroi (chanson) (c. mid 13th century)

Roger Bacon (c. 1267)

Burchard of Mount Sion (c. late 13th century)

Ristoro d'Arezzo (1282)

Hereford Mappaemundi (c. 1283-1313)

Marco Polo (c. 1300)

Ottokar aus der Gaal (c. early 14th century))

Hayton of Corycus (1307)

Guillaume Adam (c. 1310-4)

Marino Sanudo Torsello (c. 1300-21)

Friar Jordanus (c. 1330)

Directorium ad Passagium Faciendum (1332)

John of Verona (1335)

Angelino Dulcert (1339)

Niccolo da Poggibonsi (c. 1345-50)

Anonymous Account of the Holy Land (c. 1350)

Mappaemundi of Portulano Mediceo Laurenziano (1351)

Le Chevalier au Cygne (chanson) (c. 1350s)

Vivaldi Brothers (before 1360)

Sir John Mandeville (d. 1371)

Catalan Atlas (1375)

Ogier d'Anglure (1395-6)

Jean de Bethencourt (1402-6)

Portulan attributed to Jaffuda Cresques (c. 1416)

Thomas Ebendorfer (c. 1450)

Orlando Innamorato (1482)

Friar Felix Fabri (c. 1483)

Joos van Ghistele (1481-5)

Orlando Furioso (1532)