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This page follows the names of kings of Nubian kingdoms presented in Welsby 2002, 259-261 (see Guide to the Texts). It does however reject Welsby's presentation of Makouria, Alwa and Dotawo as different kingdoms: see Ruffini 2013.

VII Century

Qalidurut: Reigned c. 651/652 (see Maqrizi's al-Khitat XXXVII).

Mercurios: Reigned 696-710-?

VIII Century



Mark: Reigned for six months.

Cyriacus: Reigned during the patriarchate of Michael (743-767). Abu Salih describes his attack on Egypt.

Chael or Michael: c. 785/94 to 804/13.

IX Century

Ioannes: d.c. 850? or before 822? Godlewski 2002, 76: 835.

Zacharias: Reigned during the patriarchate of Joseph (831-849). Godlewski 2002, 76-77: r. 835, d.c. 856. Abu Salih describes his son's trip to Baghdad. Father of Giorgios.

David: I.Khartoum Greek 79, a king David who reigned for 16 years, 3 months and 2 days in IX/X.

Giorgios I: King for at least 12 years at the time of a Faras inscription Jakobielski believed to date to 871; see Jakobielski 1972, 95. Son of Zacharias and a woman of the royal family; described as the rightful heir to Ioannes (Godlewski 2002, 76).

Giorgios II: Son of Giorgios I. Godlewski 2002, 86: r. 887-920.

X Century

Giorgios II (cont'd): Father of Zacharias below; see Hagen 2010.

Zacharias II: 918 to at least 941; see Hagen 2010. Son of Giorgios II.

Kabil, Surur's son: c. 943.

Asabiyus of Alwa: c. 938 - c. 955. Son of Juti. Succeeded by his sister's son Astabanus. See ibn Hawqal (Vantini OS 163).

Astabanus of Alwa: c. 955. Sister's son of Asabiyus. Son of Yurki (i.e. Giorgios). See ibn Hawqal (Vantini OS 163).

Giorgios: -969 - before or until 1002

Zacharias: -962- (Dijkstra and van der Vliet 2002)

XI Century

David of Alwa: 999 to 1015. So the by Jakobielski, but see I.Khartoum Greek 79, moving the text to the IX/X.

Raphael: c. 1002, credited by Abu Salih with introducing red brick domes to the royal structure at Dongola. Godlewski 2002, 91: d. 1006; perhaps the son of Giorgios III.

Anonymous: son of Raphael. Godlewski 2002, 92: "most likely the last certain royal heir of the dynasty."

Stephanos: c. 1027; unpublished notarial deed; see Millett 1967, 59.

Giorgios: 1070s (P.QI inv. 72.10.24/13: Plumley 1981 Coptic protocol, which dates to 1071/1072).

Solomon: His retirement during the patriarchate of Cyril, 67th patriarch (1078-1092), is described in Abu Salih. He had retired to a church of St Onnophrios before traveling to Cairo, where he died. His tomb is recorded as being in the monastery of St George. He had written a letter in Old Nubian which proved his learning in religious matters. Godlewski 2008, 271: sister's son of Stephanos, and first king uniting Makouria and Alodia.

Basil: -1089-

XII Century

Basil of Alwa: Attested in an Arabic letter from Qasr Ibrim. Identical to Basil c. 1199 below?

Giorgios: b. 5 July 1106. r. 28 June (?) 1132 on. d. 1158. See the Wadi Natrun inscription (WN).

David: Prior to 1155? See P.QI.3.30 and Griffith's land sale.

Moses Giorgios: 1155?-1199? Son of Mari (P.QI.3 passim). Nephew of David, who in turn would likely be Mari's brother (P.QI.3.30). King of Alwa and Makouria. Son of Koudapis, descendant of Maranya Georgi, Zachari, and David (Łajtar 2009b). Attested in documents from Qasr Ibrim and an inscription from Faras.

Basil: -1199-. See P.QI.3.38. Note also the Basil in Qasr Ibrim excavation photo sheet 76V13, now held in the British Museum, and in P.QI.inv. 82.2.3/67B, photographs of which are also available in the British Museum.

XIII Century

Murtashkar: -1268?

David: -1268-1272 (or 1275/1276). See P.QI.4.67 and P.QI.4.69.

Shakanda: 1276-? Perhaps the same as King Mashkoud, attested in an inscription from Dongola (Łajtar forthcoming).

Barak: -1279?

Giorgios Simon (Semamun): 1280s-1290s. See P.QI.4.64 and P.QI.4.65.

Semamun's nephew.

David's nephew.

XIV Century

Amay: -1304/5-

Kernabes: 1311-1316.

Barshanbu: 1316-1317 (or 1318/1319).

Kanz ed-Dawla: 1317 (or 1318/1319) to 1323, including a short reign of Abraham.

Kernabes: 1323-1324; see Griffith 1913, 1928b.

Kanz ed-Dawla: 1324-?

Paper: Attested at Banganarti; see Łajtar 2005.

Siti: 1330s. See Łajtar 2004; Ochała 2011a; P.QI.4.66; P.QI.4.68.

XV Century

Ioel: -1464-1484-


Giorgios of Alwa. Soba East inscription.

Koudlaniel. Abu Oda.