2. as-Suluk

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[pp. 673-704]

2.) From: "Kitāb as-Sulūk" ("The Book of the Way to know the Dynasties of Kings")

[Tūrānshāh's Campaign in Nubia [568 H./1172 A.D.]]

In this year the black slaves (ʿabīd) advanced out of Nubia to lay siege to the town of Aswān, where is the residence of Kanz ed-Dawla. The Sultan sent Shujā' ad-din al-Baalbaki (al-Ba'labakkī) with a numerous army to march on Aswān, but the slaves had already left: he, together with Kanz ed-Dawla, went in pursuit of them; attacked them and slew a great number and then returned to Cairo.

In this same year, al-Malik al-Mu'aẓẓam Shams ad-Dawla Fakhr ad-Dīn Tūrānshāh son of Ayyūb, the brother of Saladin, marched against the country of the Nuba, captured the fortress of Ibrīm, and took prisoners and booty and then returned to Aswān. He gave Ibrīm in fief to a man called Ibrahīm al-Kurdī. He occupied the place with a company of Kurds: they began carrying out raids into the country of the Nūba, so that they became very rich in goods and cattle after they had lived a life of poverty and hardship. A letter accompanied by a present was sent by the king of the Nūba to Shams ad-Dawla, who was at that time residing at Qos. He received the ambassador with honour and distinguished him with a robe of honour and handed to him two pairs of arrows saying: "Tell the king: - I have no reply for him other than this". He sent the ambassador back together with a messenger to explore the country. He [the messenger] went up to Dongola (Dumqula) and came back to him reporting:

[p. 674] I have found the country narrow, devoid of crops, except dhurra and small palm-trees from which they obtain their food (adām)<ref>The food is is eaten together with bread. Cf. Italian "companatico".</ref> [...]. The king goes out [almost] naked, mounting an unsaddled horse: [when I saw him] he was wrapped only in a silk robe (aṭlas); he was completely hairless. When I drew up to him and saluted him, he burst into a laughter and wonder. He ordered that a cross be stamped on my hand with a red-hot iron. He ordered that I be given fifty pounds (riṭl) of flour. At Dongola, there is no walled building, except the king's residence; all the other dwellings are built with reeds. (Ziada I, part 1, pp. 50 - 51).

[Turānshāh's expedition to Yemen; 569 H./1173 A.D.]

In this year, the emir Shams ad-Dawla Turānshāh, the brother of Sultan Saladin, marched on Yemen. The reason for this was the great fear that Saladin and his relatives had that al-Malik al-'Adel Nureddin might invade Egypt and conquer it. They wanted to have a kingdom to which to withdraw; their choice fell on Nubia; but when he went there he was not pleased with it. It was the faqīh 'Umāra al-Yamanī who went to Shams ad-Dawla and became one of his followers, praised him and talked to him about Yemen<ref>The following passage, dealing with the same story, is taken from Maqrīzī's "Kitāb adh-Dhahab al-masbūk". Shams al-Dawla was the one who played the decisive role in the victory of his brother Saladin on the day of the battle of the Blacks and exterminated them by the sword. Saladin assigned to him Qos, Aswān and 'Aydhāb as a fief, the revenue of which was, at that time, over 260,000 Egyptian dinārs yearly. Later on, he carried out a raid in Nubia, in the year [568 H. = 1172 A.D.] and took the citadel of Ibrīm. He returned with the spoils and marched on Yemen in the year [5]69 [=1173]. Cf. Gamaleddin al-Shayyal (Kitāb al-Dhahab al-Masbūk), Cairo 1955, (Arabic) (pp. 70-71)</ref> (ibid., p. 52).

[p. 675] In this year [569 H./1173 A.D.] a group of Cairo citizens plotted to murder Saladin treacherously and to restore the kingdom of Egypt to one of the sons of [the late] al-'Āḍid. They wrote to the Franks. Among the conspirators there were al-qāḍī al-Mufaḍḍal Diyā' ad-dīn Naṣralla b. ’Abdalla b. Kāmil al-qāḍī, ash-sharīf al-Julaysī, Najāḥ al-Hamāmī al-faqīh 'Umara b. 'Alī al-Yamanī, 'Abd aṣ-Ṣamid al-Kātib, al-qāḍī al-A'azz Salāma al-'Awrīs the head of the dīwān of Supervision and Justice, the dā'ī ad-du'āt 'Abd al-Jabbār Ismā'īl b. 'Abd al-Qawī, and the preacher Zayn ad-dīn b. Najā. This one whispered information about the plot in the ears of the Sultan, and asked, in return, to be rewarded with all the estates and other property of Ibn Kāmil the dā'ī which he actually obtained. The conspirators were rounded up and hanged on Saturday 2nd Ramadan between the two Palaces.<ref>There follow some details about the execution of each conspirator.</ref>

... Saladin presented up anyone who dreamed of restoring the Fatimid dynasty. He killed many of them and others he put in prison. He ordered that the [Fatimid] Palace should be evacuated by all the soldiers (ajnād) and other staff, as well as by the sūdān foot-soldiers. These were all sent to the remotest parts of Upper Egypt. A man by the name of Qudayd was arrested at Alexandria because he called for support to the Fatimids... Also many sūdān were arrested and marked with a red-hot iron on their forehead and their breast.<ref>There follows the episode of the rise of Kanz ad-Dawla at Aswān. Maqrīzī's report does not differ from that of earlier writers [e.g. Ibn al-Athir]</ref> (Ziada I, l, p. 53).

[p. 676] [The Abolition of the Pilgrim Tax]

In this year [570 H./1174 A.D.] the Sultan [Saladin] abolished the tax (maks) which it was customary to levy on each pilgrim leaving 'Aydhāb for Mecca by sea. The tax amounted to seven-and-half Egyptian dinars per head, to be paid at 'Aydhāb or at Judda. Those who failed to pay were not permitted to complete the pilgrimage and were subjected to [such a torture as] hanging by their testicles (ta'līqi-hi min unthayay-hi).<ref>See: Ibn Jubayr [q.v.]</ref>

The emir of Mecca received one thousand dinars and one thousand ardeb of wheat as an indemnity [after the abolition of the tax], besides other fiefs in Upper Egypt and Yemen yielding 8,000 ardeb of wheat which were shipped to him by way of Judda. (Ziada 1, 1, p. 64).

[The Revolt of the Arabs in Upper Egypt; 651 H./1253 A.D.]

In this year, the Arab nomads (ʿurban) rose in Upper Egypt and in the Delta (arḍ baḥrī) and cut the communications by land and river, so that no merchant dared to travel. Sharīf Ḥiṣnaddīn Tha'lab, son of the great emir Najmaddīn 'Alī, son of the emir ash-Sharīf Fakhraddīn Ismā'īl b. Ḥiṣn ad-Dawla Majd al-'Arab Tha'lab b. Yaqūb, b. Muslim, b. Abī Jamīl al-Ja'dī, led the revolt by proclaiming: - "We are the owners (aṣḥab) of this country." He prevented the tax-collectors (ajnād) from collecting the dues. He and his followers proclaimed: "The right to possess our land (mulk) belongs to us more than to the mamālīk [= the Turks].

We have served the Ayyubids enough! They are foreigners who have invaded the country!" They refused to submit to the Turks, saying: - "They [the Turks] are slaves [p. 677] of foreigners (ʿabīd li-l-khawārij)." They wrote to al-Malik an-Nāṣir, the Lord of Damascus, inviting him to march on Egypt (Miṣr). The Arabs, who in those days were rich in money, horses and men, rallied around the emir Ḥiṣnaddīn Tha’lab, who was then in the district of Dahrūt.

They gathered from the remotest districts of Upper Egypt and the Delta (al-buḥayrah), from Giza and Fayum and all gave the oath of allegiance. The horsemen were 12.000 in number, and the foot soldiers well above that number. The king al-Malik al-Mu’izz Aibek sent against them the emir Fārisaddīn Aqṭāy al-Jamdār, and the emir Fārisaddīn Aqṭāy al-Musta'rib with 5.000 horsemen. They marched on Darawa [in the Delta]. The emir Ḥiṣnaddīn Tha'lab advanced against them. The two sides joined battle from morning to sunset. God hat it written in His book that the emir Ḥiṣnaddīn [was to] fall from his horse: his friends rushed around him, but the Turks overcame and killed 400 men, from among the Arabs and Black slaves (ʿabid) who were around him. At last they succeeded in setting him upright in his saddle, but he, on seeing that the Arabs had dispersed, withdrew in retreat. The Turks pursued him, killing and taking prisoners until sight fell. What they had seized in booty, women, children, horses, camels and herds was more than they could carry away, and they returned to their camp at Bilbeis. Then they turned against the Arabs of [the district of] Gharbieh and Menufieh, who belonged to the Sinbis and Lawāta tribes: they gathered in the neighbourhood of Sakhā and Sanhūr, attacked them and seized their women as prisoners and killed the men. Thus the coalition of the Arabs of Egypt was broken up, and their power has declined since. (Ziada I, 2, pp. 386 — 387).

[p. 678] In this year ([656 H./1253 A.D.] Shaykh Abū-l-Hasan b. 'Abdalla ash-Shādhilī the hermit, died in the desert of 'Aydhāb and was buried there. (Ziada I, 2, p. 414).

In this year a group of Sūdān and Rakbidāriyya and stable-men rushed into the Cairo streets shouting: "Long live the House of ʿAlī! (ya āl ʿAlī). They broke into the shops of the sword-makers between the two Palaces, grabbed all the weapons they found, then rushed blindly into the stables of the soldiers of the fisc (ajnād) and took their horses. The cause of this incident was a man by the name of al-Kawrānī who lived an ascetic life, always carried a masbaḥa (beads) in his hand and dwelled in the Qubba of the Mountain receiving visits from many servants (ghilmān) and grooms and exhorted them to restore the Fatimid dynasty. He promised them many rewards (iqṭa'at) and gave them a warrant written on scraps of paper. After they [the grooms and sūdān] began their rising, the soldiers mounted on horses, during the night, besieged them and arrested all of them. In the morning they were all crucified outside Bāb Zuwayla, and the rebellion came to an end. (Ziada 1,1, p. 414).

In this year [662 H./1263 A.D.] the Sultan [Baybars I.] also bequeathed two stables which were under the Citadel, one of which was known under the name of Jawhar an-Nūbī, on the side of the desert. (Ziada 1,2, p. 505).

In that same year [662 H./1263 A.D.] news was received that the Regent (mutamallik) of the Dahlak island and the Regent (mutamallik) of the island of Sawākin seized the property of those merchants who died at sea. The Sultan [Baybars] sent a soldier from those who wore armour to warn him against such a behaviour. (Ziada I, p. 506).

[p. 679] In that month [Jumadā al-Wulā 662 H./March 1264 A.D.] messengers went to king Baraka [?]. A great number embraced Islam in the presence of the Sultan: they were Tatar who came to Egypt (wāṣilīn), Franks who came for safe-conduct or as prisoners, Nubians who came on behalf of their king. The emir Badr ad-dīn the Khāzindār, distributed on them, in one day, one hundred and eighty horses. (Ziada I, 2, p. 511).

In the month of Dhū-l-Qa'da [October 1265 A.D.] a letter from the governor of Qos was received announcing that he had arrived at 'Aydhāb and had sent a detachment of the army to Sawākin, but the Lord of Sawākin had taken to flight. The soldiers then returned to Qos, the country became quiet, the Sultan's men, however, remained at Sawākin. (Ziada I, 2, p. 550).

In that year the Sultan was anxious to collect the zakāt from all the other districts and territories. In the Maghrib he had collected a contribution (zakāt) calculated on the cattle and another on their cereals. He collected the zakāt also from the district of Sawākin and its islands. (Ziada, I, 2, pp. 557 - 558).

This same year the Wālī of Qos, moving from Aswān, marched on Nubia until he arrived near Dongola, killed many people, took prisoners and then returned. (Ziada, p. 608).

[Year 673 H./1274-75 A.D.]

A letter was received [at Cairo] from the king of Habasha, by name al-Haṭṭī, - which means "the Successor" (al-khalīfa).<ref>See: Al-Mufaḍḍal [q.v.].</ref> put his request to the Sultan in [p. 680] these words: "the least of the slaves prostrates himself kissing the earth at its lowest" and asked that a bishop (miṭrān) be sent him by the patriarch (""baṭraq"") . His request was granted. (Ziada, ibid., pp. 615 - 616).

[Shekanda [674 H./1275-76 A.D.]]

During this year, the son of the sister of the king of the Nubians, one by name Meshked<ref>In "Khiṭaṭ", II, 3, ch. XXXVI, Maqrīzī called him Shekanda. The similarity between M.Sh.k.d. and Sh.K.N.D. may prompt some philological discussion. Almost surely, Maqrīzī utilized one source for '"'Hiṭaṭ" and another for "Sulūk".</ref>, arrived at the court of Egypt, with a complaint against David (Dāwūd) king of Nubia. The Sultan sent with him [Meshked] the emir Aqsonqor al-Fariqānī, with a [regular] army and [other] troops belonging to the Wālīs and Arabs. There were [in the army] with him pikemen (az-zarrāqūn), archers (ar-rumāh) and grenadiers (rijāl al-ḥarārīq) and men wearing coats of mail (az-zardakhānāh). He set out at the beginning of the month of Sha'bān [b. January 1275 A.D.], and advanced beyond Aswān. King David and his friends among the Blacks (as-sūdān) fought: they went to the battle mounted on dromedaries: [Aqsonqor] routed them and took many prisoners. The emir Aqsonqor sent the emir 'Izzaddīn al-Afram, who attacked the fortress of Daw, killed some and took other prisoner. Then the emir Aqsonqor continued the pursuit, killing and taking prisoners until he arrived at the Island of Mikā'īl which lies at the entrance (ra's) of the Cataract of the Nubians (Janādil an-nūba). There, too, he killed [some] and took captives. The emir Aqsonqor nominated Qamar ad-Dawla Lord of the district of the Mountain (Ṣāḥib al-Jabal) and kept under his authority one half of the Nūba country, besides what he had already under his power. Then he [Aqsonqor] attacked King David and put the majority or his men out of action, either killed or made captive. David fled by way of the river, but his brother Shanqū [p. 681] (Sanqō) was captured. Aqsonqor led his army pursuing him for three days, with the sword. He obtained such a great success, there, that all were subjected. The mother and the sister of king David were captured.

Meshked was enthroned as king: he was crowned and sat on the throne of David. He was obliged to pay every year a tribute (qaṭī'a) consisting of: three elephants, three giraffes, five she-panthers (fuhūd unāth), 100 tawny dromedaries of good quality and 100 oxen without blemish. It was also decided that the country should be divided into two parts: one-half (niṣf) to the Sultan, the other to be cultivated and preserved [for the Nubians ?]. The [district known as] al-ʿAlī and the district [known as] al-Jabal - which account for nearly one-quarter of the country of the Nubians - because of their position near to Aswān, were to belong to the Sultan: [also] all the cotton, dates, and customs revenues should belong to the Sultan. He offered them [the Nubians] three options from which to choose: either [to embrace] Islam, or to pay the jizya, or to die. They chose the jizya, which obliged everyone to pay at the rate of one dīnār per person. The formula for an oath containing these [above mentioned] conditions was drawn up; Meshked and the Nubian nobles (akābir) among the Nubians took this oath. Another [formula] for an oath was drawn up to make the people swear that they would obey the representative (nā'ib) of the Sultan, so long as he remained loyal [to the Sultan] and that they would pay a dinar per adult person. The church of Sūs was pulled down; in fact this church, according to David, reminded him (tuhaddithu-hu) what he should do (bimā yu'addī-hi).<ref>This passage is found ad litteram in Nuwayrī [q.v.].</ref>

[p. 682] They took out of the church the golden crosses (sulbān) and other objects of gold, the whole of which was valued at 4.640 1/2 dīnārs; the silver vases which were taken away were also valued at 8.660 dīnārs. David had it built by the Moslems whom he had taken prisoner at 'Aydhāb and Aswān. The relatives of David were obliged to hand over to the Sultan whatever had remained of David's property in slaves and linen (qumāsh); the prisoners of war who had been seized at 'Aydhāb and Aswān and who were still held in Nubia were set free and sent back to their homes. The [Arab] army captured many slaves as booty: they were so numerous that they be put up for sale at three dirhams each, and after the killing which took place during the battle, there remained ten thousand souls (nafs) [as prisoners?]. The army stayed at Dongola seventeen days and then returned to Cairo, on the fifth day of Dhū-l-Hijja [= 19 May 1275 A.D.] with the prisoners and the booty. It was on this occasion that the Sultan ordered Master (ṣāḥib) Bahā'uddīn b. Ḥanna to set up an office at Dongola and in the other districts, with officials in charge of collecting the tribute (kharāj) and the jizya of the Nūba. (Ziada, pp. 621 - 623).

[The Possessions of Sultan Baybars I.]

Sultan Baybars ruled over [among other towns] the country of the Nubians, Barqa and the other provinces of Egypt and Syria [etc.], about which a poet said: "The responsibilities of the king extended from Egypt to Yemen, to Iraq and up to the land of the Rūm and the country of the Nubian." (Ziada, p. 638).

[p. 683] [Nubian Soldiers in Qalāwūn's Army Against the Tartars]

Sultan Qalāwūn decided to form an army and sent for his allies. From Iraq came the emir Ḥamid b. Hajī with a numerous troop of Murra (Qurra ?). This troop consisted of about 4.000 horsemen. [They were] dissatisfied with their armour: [in fact they were] mounted on marked horses (al-khuyūl al-musawwamah), they wore red coats (qasghandāt) of silk (aṭlas) of Ma'dan and the rūmi blouse (ad-dibāj); their head-dress was an egg-shaped helmet (bīḍ); they were armed with swords and carried javelins (rimāh) in their hands; before them marched some negro slaves (ʿabīd) who leant forward on [poor] mounts or swayed on camel-back during the march carrying slices of meat in their hands. A woman singer, by name Haḍramiya, was travelling with them sitting on the palanquin (hūdaj): she chanted to excite the soldiers to battle. (Ziada, I, 3, p. 690).

In this month [Rajab 680 H./October—November 1281 A.D.] a fight took place in the 'Aydhāb desert between Arabs of the Juhayna and the Rufā'a tribes. There were casualties on both sides. The court wrote to Sharīf 'Alam ad-dīn, the Lord of Sawākin, urging a reconciliation between the two sides. He was warned not to help either party against the other, lest a rebellion would arise and jeopardise security on the route [to ’Aydhāb]. (Ziada I, 3, p. 700).

[Shemamun<ref>Also spelt "Sīmāmūn". We have adopted Monneret's reading.</ref> [684 Η./1285-86 A.D.]]

On the sixth day of Dhū-l-Hijja, the emir ’Alamaddīn Sanjar al-Masrūrī, nicknamed al-Khayyāṭ, governor of [p. 684] Cairo, and the emir 'Izzaddin al-Kūrānī, set one to raid the country of the Nūba. The Sultan assigned to them a company (ṭā'ifa) of soldiers from the provinces (wilāyāt) of Upper Egypt and the qarāghulāmīyya. He wrote to emir 'Izzaddīn Aidemur (Aidamer) as-Sayfī, the Silāḥdār, governor of Qos, [ordering him] to join them and accompany them with his troops, the Sultan's own slaves (mamālīk) who were [stationed] in the district of Qos, and the tax-collectors (ajnād) of the district (markaz) of Qos, as well as a number of nomads (ʿurbān) who were in that district: these belonged to [the clans of] the Awlād 'Alī Bakr, Awlād ʿUmar, Awlād Sharīf, Awlād Shaybān, Awlād Kanz, the Banī Hilāl and others. Al-Khayyāṭ set out, marching along the west bank [of the Nile] with one half of the army, and Aidemur marched with the other half along the east bank, on which Dongola is built. When the army arrived at the frontier of Nubia, King Samāmūn ordered that the country should be evacuated. He was very brave. He sent a messenger to Jorais (Jurays) his agent (nā'ib) in the island or Mikā'īl and the district of Daw (ʿamal Daw) - the Lord of that province (wilāya) was known among the Nubians under the name of Ṣāḥib al-Jabal - and ordered him to evacuate the country under his Jurisdiction [as soon as the Egyptian army approached]. They abandoned the country at the same time as the army followed them up, stage after stage, until the Egyptian army confronted the king of Nubia at Dongola. Samāmūn went out to attack them. The emir 'Izzaddīn fought a very hard battle, the Nubian king was defeated and many of his [men] were killed; a number of Moslems, too, lost their lives in battle. The army pursued the Nūba a fifteen days' distance beyond Dongola, until they captured Jorais and took him prisoner. They also seized the son of the king's aunt (ibn [p. 685] khālat al-malik), who was among the nobles ('ʿuzamāʾ) of the kingdom. The emir 'Izzaddīn established the son of the sister of the king in the kingdom or Nubia, appointed Jorais as his vicar (nā'ib), assigned to them a Corps and imposed on them a tribute which they were to pay every year. Then he returned [to Egypt] with a great booty of slaves, horses, camels, oxen and clothing. (Ziada, pp. 736 - 737).

[Qalāwūn’s First Expedition Against Shemamun [685 H./ 1286-87 A.D.]]

On the first day of Jumadā al-Ulā [26 June 1286 A.D.] a letter arrived from the emir 'Alamaddīn Sanjar al-Masrūrī al-Khayyāṭ from Dongola, announcing his victory and the capture [of this town] as well as the seizure of the members of the royal family (mulūk), their crowns and their women. The letter was brought by Ruknaddīn Menkawris al-Fāriqānī. The Sultan honoured him with a robe and he sent his reply through him, authorising the emir 'Izzaddīn Aidemur, governor of Qos, to remain at Dongola together with [a detachment of] the Sultan's slaves, soldiers of the tax-collection (ajnād) and other men. He ordered that the emir 'Alamaddīn [should] return with the remainder of the expeditionary force. From the Citadel (qal'at al-Jabal), one Sa'd ad-dīn Sa'd, son of the daughter of David, was sent so that he, through his knowledge of the country and the people, might help the emir Aidemur. He left for his assignment and was honoured with a gilded sword and lived at Qos.

... On the ninth day of Rajab [1 September 1286 A.D.], the emir 'Alamaddīn Sanjar al-Masrūrī arrived from Nubia, leading the remaining part of the expeditionary force [p. 686] which had not stayed at Dongola with 'Izzaddīn Aidemur. In his party were the kings (mulūk = the king and the princes) of the Nūba, their women and their crowns and also great multitude of captives: it was indeed a famous day (yaum mashhūd). The Sultan divided the captives among the emirs and others; the soldiers (an-nās) gave presents to one another, the prisoners were sold very cheaply because of their great multitude. The emir 'Alamaddīn received a robe of honour and was appointed Mahmandār<ref>The Court official in charge of receiving the guests of the Sultan [Qalqashandī]</ref> in place of the emir Sharafaddīn el-Jākī, who had been dismissed, arrested and sentenced to the confiscation of his property.

As for Nubia, its king Shemamun went back to Donqola. After the Egyptian expeditionary force withdrew, he attacked those [of his enemies] who were found there and defeated them. The king fled with Jorais and the garrison attached to Dongola; they all left for Cairo. The Sultan was angered and gave orders that another expeditionary force be prepared to invade Nubia. (Ziada, p. 743).

[The Second Expedition Against Shemamun [Year 688 H./ 1289 A.D.]]

On the last day of Sha'bān [17 September 1289 A.D.], the Sultan sent to Nubia the emir 'Izzaddīn Aibek al-Afram [who was] the emir Jandār; with him there were the emirs Kipchak (Qibjāq) al-Manṣūrī, Boktemur al-Jawkandār and Aidemur the Wālī of Qos, as well as the troops (aṭlāb) of several (other) emirs and the reserves of the soldiers of Upper Egypt (al-wajh al-qiblī) and of the agents of the Wālīs and 40.000 foot-soldiers recruited [p. 687] from among the Bedouins of Upper and Lower Egypt. Together with them was also the king of the Nubians and Jorais. They set out on the 8th day of Shawwāl [= 26 October 1289 A.D.]; to support them up there were five-hundred boats loaded with grenadiers (ḥarārīq) and other boats, large and small, which carried provisions, arms and equipment.

When they arrived at the frontier town of Aswān, the king of the Nubians died and was buried at Aswān. The emir 'Izzaddīn al-Afram informed [the Sultan] about this and the Sultan sent one of the sons of the sister of king David who was at Cairo, to make him king. This [prince] taking a horse belonging to the mail service caught up with the expeditionary force at Aswān and accompanied it. The army divided into two halves: the emir 'Izzaddīn al-Afram and Kipchak (Qibjāq), with one half of the army consisting of Turks and Bedouins [marched] on the west bank; the emir Aidemur, wālī of Qos, and Boktemur, with the remainder, marched on the east bank. Jorais the agent (nā'ib) of the king of the Nūba, with the Awlād Kanz went before the army to reassure the [Nubian] population and to prepare stopping-places. As soon as the army advanced into the country, the chieftains (mashā'ikh) and the most prominent people (u'yān) came out to meet it, bowed down to kiss the ground and asked for safe-conduct (amān) and went back. This [kind of submission] began from the village (balad) of Daw as far as the Island of Mika'il, which made up the whole province (wilāya) of Jorais.

[As for the remainder of the country which was not under the jurisdiction of Jorais, from the Island of Mikhā’īl to Dongola], the population evacuated the country by order of the king of Nubia. The army plundered the country, killed those whom they found, let their animals graze in the cultivated fields and destroyed the [p. 688] "sāqiyas" as far as the town of Dongola. They found that the king (al-malik) had evacuated it so that no body remained there except one old man and one old woman who said that the king had gone to seek refuge on a Nile island, 15 days' distance from Dongola. The governor of Qos pursued him, but no boat could sail on the Nile thither, as the Nile was unnavigable owing to the rocks. Upon which the poet Nasiraddin b. al-Naqib, who was a member of the expedition, said:

"O day of Dumqala

O day of its inhabitants (ʿabīdi-ha)!

From all directions,

From every quarter,

Every Nubian said to his sister: -

Weep as they have stricken (sakkū)

All the Blacks (sūdān) from the rear."

... In the month of Jumadā al-Ākhira [June-July 1290 A.D.], the wālī of Qos arrived with his men at a place opposite the island where Shemamun, king of Nubia, had sought refuge. They noticed that [on the island] there was a great number of Nubian boats; they, therefore, sent messengers to invite him to make his submission and offered him safe-conduct, but he refused. The army remained in position confronting him for three days. As he feared the arrival of the grenadiers with boats, he fled towards al-Abwāb, which lies beyond the frontier of his kingdom, three days' distance from the island where he had been staying.

The Sawākirah [sing: Sūkarī], that is to say the [Nubian] emirs, abandoned him. Also the bishop (usquf) and the clergy (qusūs) abandoned him, [and came back] carrying with them the silver cross (aṣ-ṣalīb al-fidda) which is carried on the head of the king (yuḥmal 'alā ra's al-malik), and the royal crown (tāj al-mulk) : they [p. 689] asked for a safe-conduct and the wālī of Qos granted it to them; he also bestowed a robe of honour on the most prominent (akābir) ones among them. They returned to the city of Dongola in great numbers. When they arrived the emir 'Izzadīn al-Afram and Kipchak crossed the river to the east bank, and the army remained where it was. The army paraded on either bank in battle array (ālat al-ḥarb): the grenade boats (ḥarārīq) on the river were decorated and the artillery (ar-zarrāqūn) displayed nift-fires. The emirs spread the table cloth (simāṭ) in the church of Usūs. which is the largest of the churches of Dongola, and held a banquet there; then they enthroned as king the man whom the Sultan had sent; they put the crown on him and obliged him, as well as the nobles, to swear the oath [of allegiance] and imposed the baqṭ. They also selected a troop of soldiers to remain with him under the command of Baybars al-'Azzī, a slave (mamlūk) of the wālī of Qos. Then the army returned to Aswān, after it had been away for six months. Afterwards, they went back to Cairo on the last day of Jumadā al-Ulā [6 May 1291 A.D.], with a great booty.

As for Shemamun, after the departure of the army, he went back to Dongola incognito, knocked at the doors of each of the Sawākirah (princes). Each prince who came out and recognized him (ra'a-hu) bent down to kiss the earth before him and take the oath of loyalty to him. Before sunrise he had gathered all the remnant of his army. Then, he, with his soldiers, entered the royal palace (dār al-mulk), dismissed Baybars al-'Azzī and his men [whom] he sent to Qos. He seized him who had reigned in his stead, and put on him an οx-hide taken from an ox which had been slaughtered just before and cut into thongs: he clothed him with them, then had him tied onto a wooden plank and left him so until he died. Jorais, too, was killed [on that day].

[p. 690] Later on, Shemamun wrote to the Sultan to apologize and promised that he would pay the baqṭ which had been imposed and even more.<ref>"yazīda-hu". Another possible reading is "yazūra-hu" (to pay him a visit).</ref> He sent him some slaves (raqīq) and other things as presents, which were received. (Ziada, p.p. 749 - 751).

[An Edict]

On Maundy Thursday (khamīs al-'ahd), which was on the 24th day of Rajab, [of the year 700 H./1300 A.D.], the Christians and Jews of Cairo, Miṣr and the environs were summoned. An order was promulgated that none of them should [henceforth] be employed in the chancery (dīwān) of the Sultan, nor in the chanceries of the emirs; they should not ride either horses or mules; they should comply with anything that was imposed on them.<ref>There follows a list of more prohibitions</ref> The edict carrying the death penalty for any offender was promulgated at Cairo and Miṣr.

The couriers left to have the edict applied to the Christians and the Jews, all over the empire, from Dongola, in Nubia, to the Euphrates. (Ziada, p. 911).

[King Ayay<ref>Other possible readings: Āī, Āmī, Āmay, Ānī. The MS of An-Nuwayrī clearly shows Anī.</ref> off to Cairo for Help from the Sultan: [704 H./1304 A.D.]]

Ayāy, king of Dongola in the country of the Nūba, arrived [at Cairo] bringing a present (hadīyya) which consisted of camels, oxen, slaves and alum (shib) and whet-stone (sunbādaj), and asked for an army (ʿaskar). He was received in the Palace of the Guests (dār aḍ-ḍiyāfa). The emir Sayf ad-dīn Taqsubā, wālī of Qos, was [p. 691] appointed [to accompany him] with a troop of Wāfidīyya,<ref>Soldiers of Tatar or Turkish origin</ref> and a number of soldiers (ajnād al-ḥalqa), about 300 horsemen, some troops from the wālī of Upper Egypt and a great multitude of nomads (ʿurbān). They gathered [arriving] by land and river, at Qos; [then] Taqṣubā left with Ayāy, the king of the Nūba. (Ziada, Vol. II, p. 1, pp. 7 - 8).

In this year [706 H./1306 A.D.], the emir Taqṣubā and his army returned from the country of the Nuba to Qos, after they had been absent for nine months, and had endured many hardships in the war against the Blacks (as-sūdān) and also because of the shortage of provisions. (Ziada II, p. 1, p. 29).

[Year 707 H./1307 A.D.]

A letter was received from the emir Karāy al-Manṣūrī in which he levelled accusations against the wālī of Qos. Also a letter arrived from the governor (mutawallī) of Qos informing [the Sultan] that Karāy had committed injustice against the fellahs of Edfu, had seized their beasts of burden and had amassed large [stores of] provisions with the intention of fleeing to the country of the Blacks (Sūdān). The reply came instructing Karāy to report [to Cairo] immediately and the wālī of Qos to beware of Karāy and to check the routes on both sides [of the Nile]. (Ziada II, 1, pp. 36 - 37).

[Kerenbes<ref>"Kudanbes'". CF. Monneret, Storia, p. 239.</ref> King of Nubia]

In this year [711 H./1311 A.D.] Kerenbes king of the Nūba arrived bringing the fine (qawad) imposed on him, after the killing of his brother<ref>We are in the dark about this detail mentioned only by Maqrīzī</ref>. (Ziada II, 1, p. 107).

[692] [Year 715 H./1315 A.D.]

The Sultan sent the emirs 'Alaūddīn Mu'alṭāy (Moghalṭāy), son of the emir of the council (amīr al- Majlis). Sayfaddin Sātī the Silāḥdār, Sarimuddin Izbek al-Jarmakī, 'Izzaddīn Aidemur ad-Dāwadār, 'Alāuddīn Ali son of Qarasonqor and Alamaddīn Sanjar ad-Denīsarī with a troop of soldiers employed by the treasury (ajnād) and the officers of the troops (muqaddimī al-ḥalqah). They were ordered to leave for Dongola in Nubia. They left on the first of Shawwal [29 December 1315 A.D.]. (Ziada 1,1, pp. 145 - 146).

[The Sultan al-Malik an-Nāṣir Mohammad Ibn Qalāwūn abolished] ... the customs duty on the Blacks (as-sūdān) and the inspection of the boats of the Nūba: [before it was abolished] a fixed customs due was levied on each slave, male or female, at the moment they entered the inns (khānāt). This was a very bad, squalid practice. (Ziada XX, 1, p. 152).

[Barshanbo, the Nubian]

In this year [716 H./1316 A.D.] [the Sultan] decided to put on the throne Barshanbo (Barshanbū) the Nubian, who was the son of the sister of David king of the Nūba. He sent the emir 'Izzaddīn Aybek with an army to accompany him.

When Kerenbes, king of the Nūba, was informed of this, he sent the son of his sister, Kanz ad-Dawla son of Shujā'addīn Naṣr [...] b. Fakhreddin Malik b. al-Kanz to enquire from the Sultan about the matter. The Sultan put Kanz ad-Dawla in jail. The army arrived at Dongola, but Kerenbes, together with his brother Abrām, fled. They were, however, arrested and taken to Cairo, where they were put in prison.

[p. 693] 'Abdalla Barshanbo was enthroned king in Dongola and the army returned in the month of Jumadā al-Ulā of the year 717 H. [July-August 1317 A.D.]. Kanz ad-Dawla, who had been released from jail, marched on Dongola. He rallied his men and waged war against Barshanbo, who was abandoned and killed by his men and Kanz became king. When the Sultan was informed of that, he took Abrām out of prison and sent him to Nubia. He [Abrām] promised [the Sultan] to send him Kanz ad-Dawla in chains; then [the Sultan] freed his brother Kerenbes also. When Abrām arrived [at Dongola], Kanz ad-Dawla went out to meet him professing his loyalty; [Abrām] seized him [intending] to deport him [to Cairo]. Abrām died three days after the arrest of Kanz, so the Nūba rallied around Kanz and recognized him as their king. (Ziada, II, 1, pp. 161 - 162).

[An Arab Raid on Aydhāb]<ref>Cf. Nuwayrī [q.v.].</ref>

In this year [716 H./1316 A.D.], the desert Arabs of Aydhāb (ʿArab barrīyyat 'Aidhāb) seized the messengers of the Lord of Yemen and a party of merchants, together with all they had with them. The Sultan sent an army of 500 horsemen under the command of the emir 'Alāuddīn Moghalṭāy, son of the emir of the Council (amīr al-Majlis), on the 20th of Shawwāl [4th January 1317 A.D.]. They set out for Qos, leaving it at the beginning of Muḥarram of the year 717 H. [= March 1317 A.D.] heading for the desert of 'Aydhāb. They passed by Sawākin, then they came across a troop of nomads which are called the clan (ḥayy) of the Halbaka [another reading: al-kay Kīyyah of the Ḥabasha],<ref>Cf. Nuwayri: "Halanka" (halenqa)</ref> who numbered about 2.000 men [p. 694] mounted on dromedaries and armed with lances (ḥirāb) and short javelins (mazārīq) ; they were accompanied by a multitude of people on foot, all naked. [The nomads] could not abide the rolling of the drums (ṭūbūl), nor could they stand the arrows [which were discharged at them]: so they withdrew defeated after they had suffered heavy losses. Then the army marched towards the regions of al-Abwāb; later they proceeded to Dumqala, and eventually they returned to Cairo on the 9th of Jumadā al-Akhira of the year 717 H. [= August 1317 A.D.], after they had been away for 8 months. (Ziada IX, 1, p. 162).

[Ambassadors to Cairo]

This year [716 H./1316 A.D.] eight ambassadors were at Cairo: viz. the ambassadors of Juban, of Abū Ṣa'īd [i.e. Persia]; of Uzbek, of Toghay, of the Lord of Barcelona (Barshalūnā), of the Lord of Istanbul, of the Lord of the Nūba (ṣāhib an-nūba)<ref>M.M. Ziada (p. 164) pointed out that the Nubia king in that year was Kanz al-Dawla and the purpose of the embassy was to obtain from the Sultan recognition of Kanz as king of Nubia after has seized the power.</ref> and of the king of Kurj [Georgia]: all of them were there to profess their loyalty. An event like this had never happened under the Turkish government (ad-dawla at-turkīyyah) in the past: the greatest number [of ambassadors] ever assembled at the time of al-Malik aẓ-Ẓahir [Baybars I.] was five ambassadors. (Ziada II, 1, pp. 163 - 164).

In the month of Rajab of the year 719 H. [August- September 1319 A.D.], news was received at the court that the Arabs had revolted at 'Aydhāb and had killed the Customs Inspector (shādd) residing in that town. The Sultan despatched the following emirs: al-Āqwash [al-Manṣūrī], the chief of the army, Muḥammad b. ash-Shams, [p. 695] 'Alī b. Qarāsonqor; Ṭaqṣubāy al-Ḥisāmī, Baybars al-Karīmī and Aqwash al-'utrays. He [then] rewarded Aqwash al-Manṣūrī by appointing him prefect of the Ṭubulkhānāt and gave in fief to him the frontier town of Aswān, but he had to reside at 'Aydhāb. (Ziada II, 1, p. 194).

[Kerenbes Finally Deposes from the Throne: Kanz King of Nubia 723 H./1323 A.D]

The first day of Dhū-l-Hijja [= 1 December 1323 A.D.] the emirs Alāuddīn 'Alī b. Karasonqor, Sayfaddīn Aidemur al-Kābikī, and Ṭaqṣubāy went out with 500 horsemen [in amount] (ajnād al-ḥalqa) to Nubia. Kerenbes (Kurunbus) accompanied them. They arrived at Dongola, where Kanz ad-Dawla had seized power. Kerenbes wrested power from him and Kanz ad-Dawla fled. Kerenbes sat on his throne (sarīr mulkī-hi): then the Egyptian force returned. Kanz ad-Dawla, however, did not cease fighting Kerenbes, after the army had departed and eventually reigned over the country in place of Kerenbes. (Ziada II, 1, p. 250).

On the 3rd of Sha’bān [724 H./27 June 1324 A.D.], the cavalry which had been on an expedition to Nubia returned [to Egypt] after they had been away for eight months. (Ziada, ibid., p. 257).

In the month of Rajab [July 1325 A.D.], news was received that a windstorm in Upper Egypt, in the country of the Qammūla Arabs, had uprooted more than 4.000 palm-trees in one hour and had destroyed several places at Akhmīm, Asiut and Aswān and in the country of the Blacks (Sūdān) and that many people and cattle had died. (Ziada, ibid., p. 257).

[p. 696] [Ambassadors from Nubia - 1325 A.D.]

In this month [Muḥarram 725 H. = December 1324 - January 1325 A.D.] a number of ambassadors never seen before under the Turkish government assembled together at Cairo. They were: the ambassadors of the Lord of Yemen, of the Lord of Istanbul, and the ambassador of al-Ashkarī<ref>Lascaris</ref> those of the king of Sīs, those of Abū Ṣa'īd [Persia], those of Mardīn, those of Ibn Qurmān and the delegates of the king of Nubia (malik an-Nūba): all professed their loyalty. (Ziada, ibid., p. 259).

[741 H./1340 A.D.]: The Sultan Nāṣir [Ibn Qalāwūn] also took interest in sheep breeding farms. He appointed some [of his] servants as husbandsmen to take care of them. Every year he sent the emir Aqboghā Abdel Wāḥid with a great number of the Sultan's own slaves (mamālīk) to inspect the sheep farms from Qos to Gīza and to bring [from the farms] the best specimen. He also sent [agents] to ’Aydhāb and to the country of the Nūba to import sheep. He had a enclosure (ḥush) built for them in the fortress of Moqaṭṭam and appointed to it some Christian farmers. [to take charge of it]<ref>"Khuwala" (managers). Taghribirdi adds that they were chosen among the Christian prisoners of war. (Nujūm, IX, 171).</ref>. He was so interested in breeding geese (awizz) and appointed a number of servant and girl-slaves to look after them. (Ziada, ibid., pp. 531 - 532).

Presents were sent to him [Ibn Qalāwūn] from the Kings of Maghrib, India, China, Ḥabasha, Takrūr, from the Nūba and the Turks, the Rūm and the Franks. (Ziada, ibid., p. 533).

On Tuesday, the first day of Muḥarram [749 H. = 1st April 1348 A.D.] news arrived that Ismā'īl al-Wāfidī, [p. 697] the wālī of Qos, who had fled from this town, had been slain. He had gathered a number of Wāfidīyyah with the intention of seizing the kingdom [of the Sūdān]; but they [the Sūdān] fought against him, killed him as well as all his men and took much money. (Ziada, ibid., p. 574).

[Brigandage and Repression in Upper Egypt]

In this year [752 H./1351 A.D.], the news was received that the emir Ezdemur the Blind (al-a'mā), the Kāshif, organised the emirs who were in various districts near him and set out [to war] by night, together with the emir Ainebek. He took the nomads of the 'Arak tribe by surprise at dawn and killed a number of them while the remainder sought refuge on a mountain side. Afterwards he returned and made contact with the Banī Hilāl, who were enemies of the 'Arak. A great number of Banī Hilāl and other [nomads] rallied round him. The emir Ezdemur wrote to the Awlād Kanz to guard the routes against the 'Arak. He left for the mountain, taking with him the emir Fārisaddīn and the emir Esendemur, the governor of Atfih. Al-Ahdab [the chief of the 'Arak] went out with a great multitude against him, but could not resist his attack and was forced to withdraw, because of the many arrows that were discharged: he abandoned his provisions and his women [on the battlefield]. The emir Ezdemur then exclaimed: - "You, Beni Hilal! down with your enemies (dawbakom a'dā'akom)!" The Beni Hilal fell on their enemies, killing and plundering cattle, grain, flour, goat-skins and water-skins; they [also] seized their women so that the hands of the Beni Hilal and of the soldiers were full of booty.

He [Ezdemur] then wrote to the Sultan [Ṣāliḥ, son of Nāṣir Ibn Qālāwun] telling him that the lands had begun [p. 698] to turn green, that the rebellious nomads had made their submission and that the population had become sedentary. The Sultan and the emirs were very pleased [at the news] and he [the Sultan] awarded the Kāshif and all the emirs a robe of honour. (Ziada II, 3).

From: Sulūk, vol. VII:<ref>The following passages from Maqrīzī's Sulūk [vols. VII-X] have ben taken from Mus'ad Al-Maktaba (pp. 346-354), because the last part of Sulūk edited by M. Mustafa Ziada was not yet published when the passages below were included in the present collection. Dr. Mus'ad edited extracts on Nubia from three Cairo MSS of Maqrīzī's Sulūk.</ref>

[In the year 767 H./1365/66 A.D.] news was received that great disturbances had been caused by the Awlād Kanz and the clan (ṭā'ifa) of the ʿAkārima<ref>The 'Akarima were a clan of an Arab tribe in Egypt, who migrated from Manfalūt to Nubia. The time of their migration is not known.</ref> at Aswān and Sawākin. By cutting the road they prevented merchants and other travellers from travelling and had also stolen people's property. Moreover, the Awlād Kanz had occupied the frontier town of Aswān, the 'Aydhāb desert (ṣaḥrā) and the desert (barriyya) of the Interior Oases (al-wāḥāt ad-dākhiliyya). They had married the daughters of the kings of Nubia as well as those of the emirs of the 'Akārima, thereby increasing their power considerably.

After a time, Rukn ad-dīn Kerenbes [Kirinbis],<ref>Thus spelt in Al-Maktaba.</ref> one of the Nuba chieftains (min umarā' an-nūba), arrived [at the Court], accompanied by al-Ḥājj Yāqūt, the drogman of the Nūba, and Arjūn Mulūk Fāris ad-dīn, with a letter from the Regent (mutamallik) of Dumqula. In the letter [the Regent reported that] his sister's son (ibn ukhtihi) had broken the oath of loyalty and had marched on Dunqula with the help of the Banī Ja'd<ref>An Arab clan dwelling near Atfīh.</ref> Arabs. A [p. 699] fierce battle was fought [at Dongola] in which the king (al-malik) was killed and his man were defeated.

They, however, chose the brother of the late king to take over the kingdom, after which they withdrew to Daw, between Dumqula and Aswān, to maintain resistance. The son of the sister of the late king occupied Dumqula, sat on the throne (sarīr al-mamlaka) and held a banquet [alīma] in honour of all the emirs of the Banī Ja'd and their nobles. At the same time he appointed some of his trusted men to lay an ambush with the object of murdering them [Banī Ja'd]. He ordered the houses near the Guests' House should all be cleared [of their occupants] and be filled with fuel/wood (ḥaṭab). After the banquet was over and guests had become drunk, a group of his men rose up brandishing their weapons and stood at the gate of the Guests' House, while others lighted the wood. As the flames rose, the Arab Bedouins (ʿurbān) rushed to the exit to escape, but the natives fell upon them and killed nineteen emirs together with a number of their chief men. Then the nephew [of the late king] mounted the horses and attacked the army (ʿaskar) of the Bedouins and killed a many more. The remainder [of the Arabs] took flight and the king seized all their property. From the stores of Dumqula he carried away all the goods (dhakha'ir) and other property (amwāl) he found, he left the town depopulated and fled to Daw. There he became reconciled with the Regent (mutamallik), on condition that he was appointed his nā'ib while the kingdom should remain in the hands of the Lord of Daw. Both of them asked the Sultan (al-malik al-Ashraf Sha'bān) to help them against the Arabs in order that they [viz. the mutamallik and his nā'ib] might recapture their kingdom. They undertook to bring a tribute (māl) to Egypt, every year. The Sultan despatched a force [p. 700] [led by] the emir Aqtemer 'Abd al-Ghānī, the chief hājib, to whom he added the emir al-Jāy who was one of the "Commandants of Thousand" (umarā' al-ulūf) and ten "Commandants of Ten" (umarā' 'asharāt), eight Commandants of Tubulkhānāt, among whom the emir Khalīl b. Qawsūn, Esendemer Marnūsh al-hājib, Mankutemer the Jashinkār, Duqmāq b. Tughnajī, Mankutemer, the Inspector (shādd) of the Palace, the emir Musā b. Qurmān, the emir Muḥammad b. Ṣirtaqṭāy with a company of the Sultan's own mamālīk. On 16th Rabī' al-Awwal [1 December 1365 A.D.], they began making preparations for the expedition; on 24th of the same month [8 December 1365 A.D.] they left in number of 3.000 cavalry. They halted at Qos for six days, during which time they summoned the emirs of the Awlad Kanz [to come to Qos] to renew their allegiance, also threatening them with the bad consequences that might derive from their disobedience; then they gave them safe-conduct. They moved from Qos [towards Nubia] and, on the road (ʿaqaba) of Edfu the emirs of the Kunūz came to express their loyalty. The emir Aqtemer 'Abd al-Ghānī bestowed on them robes of honour and honoured them in many ways, then he proceeded together with them to the frontier town of Aswān. He camped outside the town in the open plain (barr) on the west bank for 14 days. During this time the boats of the expedition were unloaded, and the cargoes which consisted of weapons and other things, were carried overland past the Cataract to the village of Bilāq. After the transport of arms, grain and other equipment was completed, the boats had passed the cataract; those which had suffered damages during the crossing of the cataract had been repaired and all arrived beyond the cataract, the loads were taken on board again to the boats and they sailed down the Nile. The army, too, moved into Nubia marching on the bank, parallel to the fleet, for one day.

[p. 701] Suddenly, messengers of the Regent of Nubia were seen on this way, to meet the army they informed [the emir] that the Arab had come to Daw and had besieged the king, the emir Aqtemer 'Abd al-Ghānī chose a company of cavalry and hastened towards Daw, leaving the remainder of the army with the equipment. He went at full speed and when he arrived at the fortress of Ibrīm (qal'at Ibrīm) he spent the night there. He held meetings with the king of the Nuba, the 'Akārima Arabs and the remainder of the Awlād Kanz. In the meantime the rest of the army arrived. He made a plan with the king of Nubia to capture the Awlad Kanz and the emirs of the 'Akārima, and was able to seize them all. Then the Regent of Nubia immediately set out with a detachment of mamālīk marching on the east bank until [he reached] the island of Mikā’īl where the 'Akarima had made their headquarters. The emir Khalil b. Qawsun marched on the west bank with another company: the two of them laid siege to the island of Mikā'īl at sunrise and took prisoner all those who were there. The besiegers killed some of them with arrows and napht fire. Some managed to escape; a few of them fled to safety, others remained cut off on the islets of the [Second] Cataract and the majority drowned. Ibn Qawṣūn took the women and children, the prisoners and spoils to the emir Aqtemer; some of the prisoners were divided among the emirs, some were set free and some others were chosen to be presented to the Sultan. An agreement was signed, under which the seat (kursī) of the king of Nubia would be in the fortress (qal'a) of Daw, because Dumqula was in ruins, as mentioned above, and also because it was feared that the Banī Ja'd would attack again and capture the king if he settled at Dumqula. The emir Aqtemer 'Abd al-Ghānī wrote a letter in which he pointed out that the king of Nubia had agreed to establish himself in the fortress of [p. 702] Daw and had declared that he no longer needed [Egyptian] help, and therefore he had consented to the return of the army to Egypt. Then he [Aqtemer] bestowed on him the robe of honour given by the Sultan and established him on the throne (sarīr al-mamlaka) in the fortress of Daw. His nephew took up residence in the fortress of Ibrim.

After all these affairs were concluded, the king of Nubia sent a gift to the Sultan and one to the emir Yalbogha al-Atābek, [both gifts] consisting of horses, camels, slaves and other [valuable] objects (tuḥaf). The array went back taking with it in irons the emirs of the Kanz family and the emirs of the 'Akārima. They stayed at Aswān for seven days, during which time it was announced that anyone who had any claims against the Awlād Kanz might raise them with impunity. Many accusations were levelled against them. Therefore, some of their slaves (ʿabīdihim) were seized and cut in half.

The army left Aswān for Cairo. They arrived on 2nd Rajab [13 March 1366 A.D.] with the prisoners. They presented the prisoners to the Sultan who had them led to prison in irons. The emir 'Abd al-Ghānī received a robe of honour, and the gift [of the Nubian king] was accepted by the Sultan.

In the year 767 H. [1365/66 A.D.], [al-Ashraf Sha'bān] the Sultan appointed a new wālī to Aswān in the fief which had traditionally belonged to the Awlād Kanz - and this was a decision without precedent. He assigned that fief to the emir al-Ḥisām, known under the nickname of "Black Blood" (ad-dam al-aswad), and handed over to him those Awlād al-Kanz who were detained in Cairo. The emir sent to Qos taking the prisoners with him. At Qos, he had them all nailed (sammara-hum) [to the pillory ?]; then he went on his way with them still nailed (musammarīn) from Qos to Aswān, where he had them sawn in half (wassata-hum).

[p. 703] That gesture shocked the children and the slaves [of the Kanz family], who, in agreement with the 'Akārima, marched on Aswān. "Black Blood" met them and fought them, but they defeated him and wounded some of his mamālīk soldiers. Then they [Kanz and ’Akārima] fell on the inhabitants of Aswān, killed some and plundered and destroyed their houses setting fire to them until they annihilated a great number of the Aswān citizens, seized their women and did in Aswān what the Franks had done in Alexandria.

From: "Sulūk", vol. VIII:

In the year 780 H. [1378 A.D.], the emir Qurṭ, the governor (mutawallī) of the frontier town of Aswān, sent to Cairo [as a present] eleven heads [he had beheaded] of the Awlād Kanz and two hundred of their men in irons. The heads were hung at Bab Zuwayla, an event never seen before.

On 11th Muḥarram [781 H. = 30 April 1379 A.D.] Ghulām Allah, the son of the Muhtār at-Tashtkhānāt [Chief of the Sultan's Laundry] was arrested [a second time] after he had been released and restored to the office of Khizana Shamāyel<ref>The office of one Shamāyel, a Syrian, who, under Sultan al-Kāmil [1218 A.D.] was promoted to high offices in the Sultanian court.</ref>. The reason for his arrest was that the emir Qurṭ of Aswān had discovered a consignment of swords, bearing the name "Ghulām Allah" engraved on the swords, addressed to the Awlād al-Kanz. The emir brought the swords with him when he came [to Cairo]. On the 17th day [6 May], two men of the Awlād al-Kanz were pilloried (summira) and paraded around in Cairo and Fusṭaṭ and finally cut in half. This action, however, weakened the prestige of the government, because extreme severity and exaggerated arrogance on the part of the government [p. 704] (dawla) encouraged the Awlād Kanz to break their loyalty and take up arms so that the government lost control over Aswān and the town suffered total destruction.

In the year 787 H. [1385 A.D.], a report was received at the court, informing that the Awlād al-Kanz had attacked the town of Aswān and killed the majority of the population, carried off the citizens and the walī took to flight. Then Ḥusayn b. Qurṭ b. 'Umar, the Turkumānī, was invested [with the governorship of Aswān] and settled there. [On that occasion] an order was issued for the Kāshif and Ibn Māzan to accompany him thither.

From: "Sulūk", vol. X:

In this month [Rajab 798 Η. = April 1396 A.D.], the Aḥāmida, who were a branch of the Arabs of Upper Egypt, together with a group of Hawwāra, marched against Ibn 'Arīb (ʿUrayb), the wālī of Aswān, and made an alliance with the Awlād al-Kanz. Ḥusayn, the father-in-law of Abū Daraqa, fled before them, and they plundered his house and all that was found in the town (balad). The [men of the] mail service, directed by Omar b. Elyās, the nā'ib of the southern provinces, [al-wajh al-qiblī] went out to pursue them. Omar Ibn ' Abd al-'Azīz marched [against him] with a party of Hawwara, and Omar b. Elyās, being unable to beat them, returned home without achieving any result.

On the 2nd [of Muḥarram of the year 800 H. = 25 September 1397 A.D.], Nāṣir, the Regent (mutamallik) of Nubia arrived fleeing from his cousin (ibn 'ammi-hi). The Sultan [aẓ-Ẓāhir Barqūq] honoured him and bestowed on him a robe of honour and restored aṣ-Ṣārim Ibrāhīm ash-shahabī to the office of wālī of Aswān and Nāṣir ad-dīn helped him [Ṣārim] [to regain Aswān]. (Mus'ad, pp. 346-354).